Poultry rearing is a very tedious job, it requires minute observation on feeding, management and any sick/ disease condition. Generally, major losses are due to mismanagement or due to infectious diseases. In the beginning, one or two birds may be affected and then spread rapidly and the whole farm birds became involved. Mismanagement are mostly unhygienic condition, overcrowding, contaminated water, feeds, weather condition ie. Extreme cold/ hot/ rainy, etc. infectious diseases are mostly Ranikhet, Fowl pox, Coccidiosis, Gumboro, Salmonellosis etc.
Mismanagement or infectious diseases are so fatal that once an outbreak occurs the farmer hardly has any time or means to control it. Hence, taking preventive step is always better than cure. Therefore, to avoid diseases and losses some important tips to be followed in poultry farming are:-
1. Follow All-in, All-out system of rearing
2. Protect chicken from coming in contact with insects, rodents, wild birds
3. Isolation of sick birds immediately from the healthy flock
4. Always keep the shed clean, dry airy and well ventilated.
5. Avoid overcrowding of bird in one shed
6. Avoid inter mixing of different age group in one shed and rearing of different species of poultry birds ie. duck turkey, guinea fowl
7. The feeder and water trough, equipment and appliances in the farm should be thoroughly washed and disinfected
8. Allow only farm workers to enter the shed and restrict visitors to the farm
9. Farm workers should wear protective gowns, face mask and after work should thoroughly wash hand and shoes
10. Proper disposals of death birds and used litter materials
11. Chicken should be vaccinated with Ranikhet/ Marek disease / Gumboro vaccine at the appropriate time schedules and deworming at regular interval
The poultry farmers should immediately report to the nearest Veterinary Health Centre for any unusual sign of disease or unexpected death in the farms.
Veterinary Hospital Kohima