Milk borne diseases are zoonotic in nature as the diseases from infected cows are transmitted to man and vice versa. The sources of infection are:
1. Infection of milk directly from the cow : The causative organisms enter the milk through the mammary glands or through faecal contamination and may cause disease condition to human being who consumes the milk eg. Tuberculosis, Brucellosis, FMD, Malta fever etc.
2. Infection from man to cow and then to milk: these diseases are essentially human, but can become established in the cow’s udder eg. Septic sore throat, scarlet fever
3. Direct contamination of milk by human being: these disease may be transmitted to the milk by direct contamination through human contact eg. Septic sore throat, typhoid fever, dysentery, gastroenteritis
4. Indirect contamination of milk by human beings: the pathogenic organism enter the milk through contaminated utensils, water, insects, flies, dust. Eg.Diarrhoea, dysentery.
Various Preventive Measures for clean milk production:
1. Proper housing of milch cow, clean milking barns.
2. Proper washing and disinfection of all milking equipment and containers.
3. Temperature of the raw milk should be kept below 5˚C or below is satisfactory.
4. Lactometer Reading – this test is applied for detection of adulteration of milk with water. Adulteration of milk with water lowers the lactometer reading.
Veterinary Hospital Kohima