Well balanced feeding of a pregnant animal is very much essential. The feed must contain all the nutrients for proper growth of the foetus. Diet deficiency in any pregnant animal may adversely the foetal size, litter size, complication during and after delivery. Congenital defects etc and causes great loss to the farmers.
Common nutritionals deficiency diseases in new born animals due to deficiencies of nutrients in the diet of pregnant animals are:-
1. Iodine deficiency – goitre, prolong gestation.
2. Copper deficiency – Twitching of muscle, ataxia
3. Manganese deficiency – limbs deformities
4. Vitamin A deficiency – eye defects, partial vision, blindness, complete absence of eyes
5. Vitamin D deficiency – defective bone, enlarged joints of limbs, bending of long bones, deformed and irregular tooth and lameness.
6. Moldy feed consumption – bone and spinal deformities
7. Iron deficiency – anaemia, pale skin, oedema of head forequarter.
8. Protein-energy malnutrition – poor growth and increase susceptibility to infection.
Some measures to prevent Nutritional Deficiency in pregnant animals:-
1. Provide well balanced diet to the pregnant animal and addition amount of extra concentrate vitamin and mineral supplement must be provided in the last trimester of pregnancy.
2. Provide plenty of fresh wholesome water and fodder.
3. The animal should be dewormed atleast a month before expected date of delivery .
4. In case of dairy cow dry off the animal about 60 days before the expected date of calving.
5. Avoid any kind of stress like transportation, extreme climate, hunger, thirst, over feeding, etc.
Proper care and management of a pregnant animal during pregnancy will ensure the birth of a healthy animal.
Veterinary Hospital, Kohima.